Serum lead level, BLL
This test measures the amount of lead in your child's blood. It can find out whether your child has been exposed to lead.
Before 1978, lead was a major ingredient in household paint. It still can be found in older homes and in the soil around them. Children can inhale lead dust or chew on items that use lead-based paint. High levels of lead in the blood can be toxic.
If you live in a home built before 1978, your doctor might order this test to see if your child has been exposed to lead. Children also are tested for lead if they have signs and symptoms of lead poisoning, including:
Abdominal (belly) pain
Anemia, or low red blood cell counts
This test is also used to see if treatment for lead poisoning is working.
If your child has higher than normal lead levels, the doctor might order a complete blood count to check for anemia, a condition in which the red blood count is low. If your child has anemia, his or her body may not get enough oxygen.
Your child may also have these blood tests:
Total iron-binding capacity
For children who need treatment for lead poisoning, more tests may be needed to see if their kidneys and liver are working the way they should. These tests include:
Blood urea nitrogen
Liver function tests
Many things may affect your child's lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your child's test results are different from the normal value, your child may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for your child, talk with your child's health care provider.
The normal lead range for children is less than 2 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL).
A test result greater than 10 mcg/dL is high and may mean your child has lead poisoning. The higher the level of lead in your child's blood, the greater the risk of learning disabilities, impaired growth, and kidney and nerve damage.
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your child's arm. Blood samples from infants and children may also be collected by a finger stick. If test results from a finger stick are abnormal, a blood draw from a vein is usually done to confirm the results.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
The test results reflect only recent exposure to lead.
You may get a false test result if:
Blood is taken from your child's finger and he or she has dust or dirt on his or her hands.
Your child is not getting enough calcium, iron, and vitamin C and eating too much fat.
Your child doesn't need to prepare for this test.