Neurological surgery, also called neurosurgery, is the branch of medicine that provides both operative and nonoperative management of disorders that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, including their supportive structures and vascular supply, and the operative and nonoperative management of pain.
Neurological surgery encompasses disorders of the brain, spine, and nerves, including the following:
The extracranial and intracranial carotid and vertebral arteries
Disorders of the pituitary gland
Tumors in and around the brain
Disorders of the spinal cord, meninges, and spine, including those that may require treatment by removing or replacing intervertebral discs, spinal fusion, or instrumentation
Disorders of the peripheral nerves
Disorders of the autonomic nervous system
The surgeon who specializes in neurological surgery is called a neurosurgeon or neurological surgeon.