The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. Cancer of the endometrium, the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs, is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells are found in the endometrium.
Cancer of the endometrium is different from cancer of the muscle of the uterus, which is called uterine sarcoma. About 80% of all endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas. Endometrial cancer is highly curable when found early. According to the American Cancer Society, about 49,560 cases of cancer of the uterine body will be diagnosed in the U.S. during 2013.
The following have been suggested as risk factors for endometrial cancer:
Early menarche — starting monthly periods early — before the age of 12
Infertility (inability to become pregnant)
Never having children
Being treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for treatment of effects of menopause
Diet high in animal fat
Increases as women get older
Most common in white women
Family history of endometrial cancer or colon cancer (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer)
Personal history of breast cancer
Personal history of ovarian cancer
Prior radiation therapy for pelvic cancer
Personal history of polycystic ovary syndrome or atypical endometrial hyperplasia
Consult a doctor if you experience any/all of the following symptoms:
Bleeding or discharge not related to your periods (menstruation)
Difficult or painful urination
Pain during intercourse
Pain and/or mass in the pelvic area
The exact cause of endometrial cancer is not known, and there is no medical cure for it at this time. However, doctors believe that avoiding the known risk factors, when possible, using oral contraceptives, controlling obesity, and controlling diabetes are the best ways to lower the risk of developing endometrial cancer.
Diagnosis includes a medical history and physical exam. It may also include 1 or more of the following:
Internal pelvic examination. This is done to feel for any lumps or changes in the shape of the uterus
Pap test (also called Pap smear). A test that involves microscopic examination of cells collected from the cervix, used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and to show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation. However, because cancer of the endometrium begins inside the uterus, problems may not be detected using a Pap test. Therefore, in some cases, an endometrial biopsy will be done.
Endometrial biopsy. A procedure in which an endometrial tissue sample is collected by using a small flexible tube that is put into the uterus. The tissue sample is examined under a microscope to see if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. An endometrial biopsy procedure is often done in a doctor’s office.
Dilation and curettage (also called D & C). A minor operation in which the cervix is dilated (opened) so that the cervical canal and uterine lining can be scraped with a curette (spoon-shaped instrument). The pathologist examines the tissue for cancer cells.
Transvaginal ultrasound (also called ultrasonography). An ultrasound test using a small instrument, called a transducer, that is placed in the vagina. The doctor may perform a biopsy if the endometrium looks too thick.
Specific treatment for endometrial cancer will be determined by your doctor(s) based on:
Your overall health and medical history
Extent of the disease
Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the disease
Your opinion or preference
The choice of treatment depends on the stage of cancer — whether it is just in the endometrium, or has spread to other parts of the uterus or other parts of the body. Generally, treatment for patients with cancer of the endometrium includes 1 or more of the following:
Hysterectomy. Surgical removal of the uterus.
Salpingo-oophorectomy. Surgery to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Pelvic lymph node dissection. Removal of some lymph nodes from the pelvis.
Laparoscopic lymph node sampling. Lymph nodes are removed through a narrow viewing tube called a laparoscope, which is inserted through a small incision (cut) in the abdomen (belly).