Pneumonia is a serious and potentially life-threatening lung infection. A germ called Mycoplasma pneumoniae is often responsible for a milder type of pneumonia called "walking pneumonia." People with this illness may feel unusually tired and run down, but they may not realize they have pneumonia and continue about their business.
About 2 million Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections occur each year in the U.S.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria can also cause bronchitis and a number of upper respiratory tract infections.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is quite contagious. It can spread between people through bodily fluids, including phlegm that is coughed up. It can also spread through airborne droplets from sneezing, coughing, or talking. It is most easily spread among people who are in close contact with one another. This includes those living within households, military barracks, camps, and college dorms. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections can spread through whole communities as well.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is extremely common in school-aged children. It's the most common cause of pneumonia in this age group. But these infections are rare in children younger than 5 years old.
Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections can occur at any time of year, they are most common in the fall and winter.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections can cause a number of symptoms:
Fever, which can be high, but is usually low grade
General feeling of sickness
Cough, particularly one that progresses from a dry cough to a productive cough
Children who have reactive airway disease may have wheezing as a result of the infection.
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria and may last from a week to a month.
Special diagnostic tests are being developed to for Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria. But they're not yet widely available to the general public. Doctors can diagnose the infection based on symptoms and a chest X-ray. Blood work can identify antibodies to the bacteria.
Often, mild respiratory infections, such as upper respiratory infections and bronchitis, clear up on their own and don't require treatment with antibiotics. But when symptoms are more severe and pneumonia or ear infections develop, antibiotics such as doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin (most common), or clarithromycin may be prescribed.
No vaccine is available to prevent a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Practicing good hygiene can help. This includes teaching kids to cover their nose and mouth when they cough or sneeze and to frequently wash hands. These measures can help prevent other infections, too.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections are rarely serious. They respond well to antibiotic treatment, and they typically clear up even without treatment. Deaths are most common in older adults or in people with other health conditions, including sickle cell disease.
People who have already had a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection do develop some immunity. But this usually doesn't last for a lifetime. A second infection from the bacteria is possible, but the illness is likely to be a milder version.