Otitis externa, also called swimmer's ear, is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that remains trapped in the ear canal (when swimming, for example) may provide a source for the growth of bacteria and fungi.
Many different factors can increase your child's chance of developing swimmer's ear. As the name implies, one of the factors is excessive wetness as with swimming, although it can occur without swimming. Other possible causes of this infection include the following:
Being in warm, humid places
Harsh cleaning of the ear canal
Injury to the ear canal
Dry ear canal skin
Foreign body in the ear canal
Excess ear wax
Eczema and other forms of dermatitis
The following are the most common symptoms of swimmer's ear. Symptoms may include:
Redness of the outer ear
Itching in the ear
Pain, especially when touching or wiggling the ear lobe
Drainage from the ear
Swollen glands in the neck
Swollen ear canal
Muffled hearing or hearing loss
Full or plugged-up feeling in the ear
The symptoms of swimmer's ear may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
Swimmer's ear may be diagnosed with a complete medical history and physical exam. Your child's health care provider may use an otoscope, a lighted instrument that helps to examine the ear and to aid in the diagnosis of ear disorders. This will help your child's provider know if there is also an infection in the middle ear, called otitis media. Although this infection usually does not occur with swimmer's ear, some children may have both types of infections.
Your child's provider may also take a culture of the drainage from the ear to help determine proper treatment.
Swimmer's ear, when properly treated by a health care provider, usually clears up within 7 to 10 days. Treatment may include
Antibiotic ear drops
Corticosteroid ear drops (to help decrease the swelling)
Keeping the ear dry, as directed by your child's doctor
The following are some hints to help prevent swimmer's ear:
Use ear plugs for swimming or bathing.
Do not aggressively clean your child's ear canal.